High Strength Peeled Inconel Alloy X-750 Nickel Alloy Products Open Die Forged
|Place of Origin:||China|
|Certification:||ISO9001, ISO10012, ISO14001, OHSAS18001, ABS, BV, DNV, Lloyd, NK|
Payment & Shipping Terms:
|Minimum Order Quantity:||500 kg|
|Packaging Details:||Seaworthy package for export|
|Delivery Time:||60 days|
|Payment Terms:||L/C, T/T|
|Supply Ability:||50 metric tons per month|
|Material:||Monel 400||Process:||Open Die Forged|
|Shape:||Round, Square||Length:||Cut To Length On Request|
alloy 825 round bar,
inconel 600 round bar
Forged nickel copper alloy Monel 400 round bar
MONEL® nickel-copper alloy 400 (UNS N04400/ W.Nr. 2.4360 and 2.4361) is a solid-solution alloy that can be hardened only by cold working. It has high strength and toughness over a wide temperature range and excellent resistance to many corrosive environments.
Alloy 400 is widely used in many fields, especially marine and chemical processing. Typical applications are valves and pumps; pump and propeller shafts; marine fixtures and fasteners; electrical and electronic components; springs; chemical processing equipment; gasoline and fresh water tanks; crude petroleum stills, process vessels and piping; boiler feedwater heaters and other heat exchangers; and deaerating heaters.
Chemical composition, %
Nickel (plus Cobalt) .....................................................63.0 min.
Manganese ...................................................................2.0 max.
Sulfur ........................................................................0.024 max.
Silicon ...........................................................................0.5 max.
Copper ......................................................................28.0 - 34.0
Tensile Properties and Hardness
MONEL alloy 400 has excellent mechanical properties at subzero temperatures. Strength and hardness increase with only slight impairment of ductility or impact resistance. The alloy does not undergo a ductile-to-brittle transition even when cooled to the temperature of liquid hydrogen. This is in marked contrast to many ferrous materials which are brittle at low temperatures despite their increased strength. Table 6 shows mechanical properties of the alloy at low temperatures.
Creep and Rupture Properties
MONEL nickel-copper alloy 400 is useful at temperatures up to and including 1000°F in oxidizing atmospheres. Higher temperatures may be employed if the alloy is in a reducing environment.
MONEL alloy 400 is a solid-solution binary alloy. As nickel and copper are mutually soluble in all proportions, it is a single-phase alloy. It has a face-centered cubic lattice structure with a lattice parameter of 3.534 A.
In the unetched condition, a polished specimen of MONEL alloy 400 will exhibit only randomly dispersed nonmetallic inclusions. These consist of metal sulfides or silicates. Under some conditions, graphite particles may also be present.
MONEL alloy 400 exhibits resistance to corrosion by many reducing media. It is also generally more resistant to attack by oxidizing media than higher copper alloys. This versatility makes alloy 400 suitable for service in a variety of environments.
Alloy 400 is widely used in marine applications. While alloy 400 products exhibit very low corrosion rates in flowing seawater, stagnant conditions have been shown to induce crevice and pitting corrosion. Alloy 400 is also resistant to stress corrosion cracking and pitting in most fresh and industrial waters.
MONEL alloy 400 offers exceptional resistance to hydrofluoric acid in all concentrations up to the boiling point. It is perhaps the most resistant of all commonly used engineering alloys. Alloy 400 is also resistant to many forms of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids under reducing conditions.
MONEL alloy 400 can be readily joined and fabricated. By
proper control of the amount of hot or cold work and by the
selection of appropriate thermal treatments, finished
fabrications can be produced to a rather wide range of
Heating and Pickling
The material will remain bright and free from discoloration when heated and cooled in a reducing atmosphere or quenched in an alcohol-water solution. Rate of cooling will have no significant effect. Alloy 400 will form an adherent oxide film if allowed to cool in air after heating.
Both cold-worked and hot-worked MONEL alloy 400 requires thermal treatment to develop the optimum combination of strength and ductility and to minimize distortion during subsequent machining.
Stress equalizing of cold-worked material causes an increase in the yield strength at 0.00% offset without marked effects on other properties. Stress equalizing is done by holding for about 3 hr at a temperature of 575°F.
Stress relieving will reduce stresses without producing a recrystallized grain structure. This treatment is recommended to obtain minimum “walking” or distortion after metal removal. Heating for 1 to 2 hr at 1000° to 1050°F will relieve strains in either hot or cold-worked products. Stress relief (1000°-1200°F/1 hr, followed by slow cooling) is strongly recommended as a precaution against stress corrosion cracking in certain environments. As shown in Figure 13, stress relieving slightly decreases tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness and slightly increases elongation.
Annealing can completely soften work-hardened material. Time and temperature required depend on the amount of previous cold work. In general, alloy 400 is annealed by the open heating method by holding at 1600° to 1800°F for 2-10 min, whereas box annealing is done most satisfactory at 1400° to 1500°F for 1-3 hr at temperature.
Grain growth occurs when material is heated in the upper portion of the annealing temperature range.
Pickling can produce bright, clean surfaces on MONEL alloy 400.
With respect to its resistance to hot deformation, MONEL alloy 400 is softer than many steels. It can, therefore, be hot-formed into almost any shape.
The use of proper temperature during hot forming is important. The range of hot-forming temperatures is 1200°F to 2150°F. For heavy reductions, recommended metal temperature is 1700° to 2150°F. Light reductions may be taken down to 1200°F. Working at the lower temperatures produces higher mechanical properties and smaller grain size.
Prolonged soaking at hot-working temperatures is detrimental. If a delay occurs during processing, the furnace should be cut back to 1900°F and not brought to temperature until operations are resumed. In no case should the alloy be heated above 2150°F; permanent damage may result.
Heavy forging should not be carried out so rapidly that the metal becomes overheated from working. The use of an optical pyrometer is recommended.
In hot-bending operations the metal should be worked as soon as possible after removal from the furnace.
Preheating tools and dies to about 500°F is helpful to prevent chilling the material while working.
A controlled forging procedure is necessary to meet the requirements of some specifications for forged, hot-finished parts. Both the amount of reduction and the finishing temperature must be controlled in order to develop the desired properties.
One procedure for producing forgings to such specifications consists of taking 30-35% reduction following the final reheat.
This is accomplished as follows:
2. Forge to a section having about 5% larger area than the final shape (take at least 25% reduction).
3. Cool to 1300°F.
4. Finish to size (5% reduction).
High-tensile forgings, as described in certain military specifications, also require a minimum of 30-35% reduction following the last reheat. This is taken in the following manner:
2. Forge to a section having an area about 25% larger than the final shape (take about 5% reduction).
3. Cool to 1300°F.
4. Finish to size (25% reduction).
Grain refinement is achieved by using a temperature of 2000°F for the final reheat and by increasing the amount of reduction taken after the last reheat.
MONEL alloy 400 is adaptable to virtually all methods of cold fabrication.
Alloy 400 can be machined at satisfactory rates with machine tools generally employed by industry. The best tool materials and design, speeds, coolants, and other factors are discussed in the Special Metals publication “Machining.” In general, cold-drawn or cold-drawn, stress-relieved material is recommended for best machinability and smoothest finish. MONEL alloy R-405 is the free-machining version of MONEL alloy 400.
Available products and specifications
MONEL alloy 400 is designated as UNS N04400 and Werkstoff Nr. 2.4360 and 2.4361. It is listed in NACE MR- 01-75 for oil and gas service. Alloy 400 is furnished in a wide range of standard mill forms including pipe, tube, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging, hexagon and wire. Popular forms and sizes are available from stock; many specialty products may be obtained from converters.
MONEL alloy 400 is approved as a material of construction by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Allowable stresses for Section III construction up to 800°F, Section VIII Division 1 construction up to 900°F and Section VIII Division 2 construction up to 800 °F are contained in Tables 1B and 2B of ASME Section II, Part D.
Bar, Rod, and Forgings - BS3075NA13 (Wire), BS3076NA13 (Bar), ASTM B 164 (Rod, Bar, and Wire), ASTM B 564 (Forgings), ASME SB 164 (Rod, Bar, and Wire), ASME SB 564 (Forgings), AECMA PrEN 2305 (Wire for Rivets), SAE AMS 4675 (Bars and Forgings), SAE AMS 4730 (Wire), SAE AMS 4731 (Wire and Ribbon), DIN 17752 (Rod and Bar), DIN 17753 (Wire), DIN 17754 (Forgings), VdTÜV 263 (Sheet, Plate, Bar, and Tubing), QQ-N-281 (Plate, Sheet, Strip, Bar, Rod, Wire, and Forgings)
Pipe and Tube - BS3074NA13 (Tube), ASTM B 163 (Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tube), ASTM B 165 (Seamless Pipe and Tube), ASTM B 725 (Welded Pipe), ASTM B 730 (Welded Tube), ASTM B 751 (Welded Tube), ASTM B 775 (Welded Pipe), ASTM B 829 (Seamless Pipe and Tube), ASME SB 163 (Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tubes), ASME SB 165 (Seamless Pipe and Tube), ASME SB 725 (Welded Pipe), ASME SB 730 (Welded Tube), ASME SB 751 (Seamless and Welded Tube), ASME SB 775 (Seamless and Welded Pipe), ASME SB 829 (Seamless Pipe and Tube), SAE AMS 4574 (Seamless Tubing), DIN 17751 (Pipe and Tube), VdTÜV 263 (Bar, and Tubing),
Product size range
Diameter: 100mm - 600mm
Length: on request