ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I

Product Details:
Place of Origin: China
Brand Name: VANFORGE
Certification: ISO9001, ISO10012, ISO14001, OHSAS18001, ABS, BV, DNV, Lloyd, NK, PED
Payment & Shipping Terms:
Minimum Order Quantity: 1000 kg
Price: Negotiable
Packaging Details: Seaworthy package for export
Delivery Time: 45 days
Payment Terms: L/C, T/T
Supply Ability: 100 tons per month

Detail Information

Material: Austenitic Stainless Steels, Duplex Stainless Steels Process: Cold Rolled
Treatment: Bright Annealed Surface: BA Or On Request
Application: Petrochemical, Chemical, Paper And Pulp Feature: High Precision
High Light:

stainless steel plate


polished stainless steel sheet

Product Description

ASTM A240 N08904 904L cold rolled stainless steel flat sheet


UNS N08904 Sheet


UNS N08904 is a high-alloy austenitic stainless steel intended for use under severe corrosion conditions within the process industry. The grade is characterized by:

  • Very good resistance to attacks in acidic environments, e.g. sulphuric, phosphoric and acetic acid
  • Very good resistance to pitting in neutral chloride-bearing solutions
  • Much better resistance to crevice corrosion than steels of the ASTM 304 and ASTM 316 types
  • Very good resistance to stress corrosion cracking
  • Good weldability



  • ASTM 904L
  • UNS N08904
  • ISO 4539-089-04-I
  • EN number 1.4539
  • EN name X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5


Product standards


A269 (seamless/welded tube)
A312 (seamless/welded pipe)

A240 sheet and plate

EN 10216-5


Approved for use in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code section VIII, div. 1 construction
NGS 685 (Nordic rules for application of SS 2562)
VdTÜV-Werkstoffblatt 421 (Austenitischer Walz-und Schmiedestahl)


Chemical composition (nominal) %














0.020 0.5 1.8 0.025 0.015 20 25 4.5 1.5


Finishes and dimensions

Seamless tube and pipe are supplied in dimension up to 230 mm outside diameter in the solution annealed and white-pickled condition or in the bright-annealed condition.

Tubes can be bent according to customer drawings and, on request, annealed after bending.



90 deg. bends are manufactured as standard in UNS N08904 according to ANSI B16.9 and, where applicable, ASTM A403. Flanges are made as standard to ANSI B16.5 in the form of slip-on flanges (class 150) and weld neck flanges (class 300), and to relevant sections of ASTM A182. Fittings can be manufactured to other standards by agreement. Other types of fittings such as reducers, tees and couplings can also be supplied on request.


Packages comprising of different product forms can be supplied. Examples of product forms are:

  • Forged tube-sheets

Mechanical properties

At 20°C (68°F)

The following figures apply to material in the solution annealed condition. Tube and pipe with thickness above 20 mm (0.79 in.) may have slightly lower values.

Proof strength

Tensile strength


Hardness Vickers.





Ab) A2"


MPa ksi



MPa ksi

% %


min. min.




min. min.


230 33 250 36 520-720 75-104 35c) 35 160

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0the original cross-section area.
c) NFA 49–217 with min 40% can be fulfilled.


Impact strength

Due to its austenitic microstructure, UNS N08904 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.


Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements (60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF)) according to the European standards prEN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) and prEN 10216-5.


At high temperatures

The steel should not be exposed to temperatures above about 550 °C (1020 °F) for prolonged periods, since this leads to precipitation of intermetallic phases, which can have an adverse effect on both the mechanical properties and the corrosion resistance of the steel.

Metric units


Proof strength










100 176 205
200 155 185
300 136 165
400 125 155


Imperial units
Temperature Proof strength
  Rp0.2 Rp1.0
°F ksi ksi
  min min
200 26.1 30.3
400 22.4 26.7
600 19.5 23.7
700 18.6 22.9

Physical properties

Density: 8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3

Thermal conductivity

Temperature, °C

W/(m °C)

Temperature, °F

Btu/(ft h °F)

20 12 68 7
100 14 200 8
200 16 400 9
300 18 600 10.5
400 20 800 11.5
500 22 1000 13
600 23 1200 14
700 25 1300 14.5


Specific heat capacity
Temperature, °C J/(kg °C) Temperature, °F Btu/(lb °F)
20 460 68 0.11
100 485 200 0.12
200 515 400 0.12
300 545 600 0.13
400 570 800 0.14
500 590 1000 0.14
600 605 1200 0.15
700 615 1300 0.15


Thermal expansion 1)

Temperature, °C

Per °C

Temperature, °F

Per °F

30-100 15.5 86-200 8.5
30-200 16 86-400 9
30-300 16.5 86-600 9
30-400 17 86-800 9.5
30-500 17 86-1000 9.5
30-600 17.5 86-1200 9.5
30-700 17.5 86-1300 10

1) Mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)


Temperature, °C μΩm Temperature, °F μΩin.
20 0.94 68 37.0
100 0.99 200 38.8
200 1.07 400 42.2
300 1.13 600 44.6
400 1.15 800 45.5
500 1.17 1000 45.8
600 1.15 1200 45.9
700 1.18 1300 46.5


Modulus of elasticity 1)

Temperature, °C


Temperature, °F


20 195 68 28.5
100 190 200 27.5
200 182 400 26.5
300 174 600 25
400 166 800 24
500 158 1000 22.5

1) (x103)


Corrosion resistance

General corrosion

The steel was originally developed for use in sulphuric acid. Its good resistance is achieved by virtue of a high molybdenum content and alloying with copper. Figure 1 is an isocorrosion diagram for UNS N08904, UNS N08028 and ASTM 316L in deaerated sulphuric acid.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 0


Figure 1. Isocorrosion diagram for UNS N08904, UNS N08028 and ASTM 316L in deaerated sulphuric acid at a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy) in stagnant solution.


Figure 2 shows the isocorrosion diagram for the above steels but in naturally aerated sulphuric acid.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 1

Figure 2. Isocorrosion diagram 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy) for UNS N08904 and ASTM 316L in naturally aerated sulphuric acid of chemical purity.


Technical phosphoric acidmanufactured by means of the "wet" method contains varying amounts of impurities from the starting material, the phosphate rock. The most dangerous of these impurities are chlorides, Cl- , and fluorides in free form, F- . UNS N08904 has been used with success in many applications in phosphoric acid plants and for the handling of technical acid. However, for the severest corrosion conditions, UNS N08028, which was developed especially for phosphoric acid applications, provides superior corrosion resistance.


In pure acetic acid, both UNS N08904 and AISI 316L are completely resistant at all temperatures and concentra-tions at atmospheric pressure. At elevated temperatures and pressures, however, AISI 316L will corrode while UNS N08904 will remain resistant. Experience from acetic acid production has shown that acetic acid contaminated with formic acid is always corrosive. In acid of this kind, UNS N08904 is far more resistant than AISI 316L, see table 1 below. Practical operating experience has confirmed the superiority of UNS N08904 to AISI 317L as well.


In formic acid, high-alloy UNS N08904 shows better resistance than conventional steels of the AISI 316L type, see figure 3. In oxalic acid UNS N08904 shows better performance than 316L, see figure 4. UNS N08904 is resistant (corrosion rate <0.1 mm/year) in lactic acid at all concentrations at temperatures up to or slightly below the boiling point at atmospheric pressure. This means a corrosion resistance similar to or slightly better than of 316L in lactic acid. Due to its molybdenum content, UNS N08904 is less resistant to nitric acid than steels of the AISI 304L and AISI 310L types, which are commonly used in these environments.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 2

Figure 3. Isocorrosion diagram 0.1 mm/year (4mpy) ior UNS N08904 and AISI 316L in formic acid.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 3


Figure 4. Isocorrosion diagram 0.1 mm/year (4mpy) ior UNS N08904 and AISI 316L in oxalic acid.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 4


Figure 5. Isocorrosion diagram 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy) ior UNS N08904 and AISI 316L in hydrochloric acid.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 5


Figure 6. Isocorrosion diagram 0.1 mm/year (4mpy) ior UNS N08904 and AISI 316L in hydrofluroic acid.

High molybdenum content is an advantage in hydrochloric acid, and UNS N08904, with its 4.5% Mo is consequently far more resistant than, for example, AISI 316L. UNS N08904 is therefore suitable for use in chemical process solutions containing small amounts of hydrochloric acid. The isocorrosion diagram is presented in figure 5. The risk of pitting should, however, be kept in mind. Also in hydrofluoric acid UNS N08904 benefits from its high molybdenum content, although hydrofluoric acid is an even more aggressive acid compared to hydrochloric acid, see isocorrosion diagram in figure 6.


Table 1. results of laboratory tests lasting 1+3+3 days in boiling mixtures of acetic and formic acid.


Acetic acid %

Formic acid %

Corrosion rate





UNS N08904





10 10 0.09 3.6 0.35 14
25 10 0.07 2.8 0.33 13
30 10 0.10 4.0 0.29 12
50 10 0.10 4.0 0.27 11


Due to its high chromium and nickel contents, UNS N08904 possesses much better resistance in sodium hydroxide than AISI 304 and AISI 316, see figure 7.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 6


Figure 7. Isocorrosion diagram 0.1 mm/year (4mpy) ior UNS N08904, 304L and AISI 316L in sodium hydrooxide of chemical purity.

As can be seen the risk of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) increases at high temperatures. This risk is enhanced if chlorides are present. The alloy UNS N08028, see data sheet S-1885-ENG, provides better resistance against SCC and also general corrosion than is the case for UNS N08904.



The high chromium and molybdenum contents of this steel make it very resistant to pitting. This has been verified by extensive practical experience of service involving chloride-bearing process solutions and seawater cooling.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 7


Figure 8. Mean values of critical pitting temperature (CPT) at 400 mV SCE and different Cl<sup>-</sup> concentrations (NaCl solutions), pH ~ 6 (1.8%Cl<sup>-</sup> corresponds to the chloride content of seawater).


As can be seen in figure 8, the mean critical pitting temperature (CPT) for UNS N08904 is around 75°C (165°F) at a potential of 400 mV SCE in a neutral solution (pH = 6) with the same chloride content as seawater. This value is 50°C (120°F) higher than for AISI 316 and 20°C (68°F) higher than for Alloy 825 (21Cr42Ni3Mo).


Stress corrosion cracking

Ordinary austenitic steels of the AISI 304 and AISI 316 types are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in chloride-bearing solutions at temperatures above about 60°C (140oF). At high temperatures, above about 100oC, chloride contents as low as in the ppm-range (10-4 %) are sufficient to cause stress corrosion cracking in these steels. A nickel content of 25% is sufficient to provide very good resistance under practical conditions.


Laboratory tests in calcium chloride confirm the superiority of UNS N08904 in resisting stress corrosion cracking compared to AISI 304 and AISI 316. As is shown by figure 9, the threshold stress (the stress necessary to induce fracture within the maximum testing time) is considerably higher for UNS N08904 than for AISI 304 and AISI 316. UNS N08904 is resistant up to at least 0.9 times the tensile strength.


Autoclave tests at different chloride contents and temperatures provide valuable data for material selection. Also this type of testing demonstrates the good SCC-resistance of UNS N08904, far better than 304 and 316 types of steels, see figure 10.

It is important to be aware of the fact that the residual stresses around a weld that has not been heat treated often equal the proof strength of the material. These stresses correspond to applied stress/tensile strength ratios of only 0.3-0.5, which is sufficient to exceed the threshold stress and thereby cause stress corrosion cracking in AISI 304 and AISI 316.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 8


Figure 9. Results of stress corrosion cracking tests on different steel grades in 40% CaCl<sub>2</sub> at 100°C (210°F), pH = 6.5.


ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 9


Figure 10. SCC resistance of UNS N08904 in comparision to AISI 304 and AISI 316 types of steels in neutral aerated chloride environments.


Crevice corrosion

Both laboratory tests and practical experience have shown that UNS N08904 is substantially more resistant to crevice corrosion than AISI 316L. This is illustrated in Table 2. Crevices should nevertheless be avoided as far as possible, especially in chloride-bearing solutions.


Table 2. Results of crevice corrosion tests in aerated stagnant NaCl solution (1.8% Cl- ) pH = 6, test period 58 days. The area ratio between creviced and non-creviced surface on the specimen is 1/12.


Metric units


Initiated crevice, corrosion attacks, %

Maximum depth, mm


50 °C

60 °C


50 °C

60 °C

70 °C

UNS N08904

0 0.20 0


Imperial units


Initiated crevice, corrosion attacks, %

Maximum depth, in.


120 °F

140 °F

160 °F

120 °F

140 °F

160 °F

UNS N08904
38 0
0 0.008 0


Heat treatment

Solution annealing

The tubes are delivered in heat treated condition. If additional heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended.

1080-1150°C (1975-2100°F), 5-30 minutes, rapid quenching in air or water.



UNS N08904 possesses good weldability. Welding should be undertaken without preheating. If welding is correctly performed, there is no need for subsequent heat treatment. The temperature between welding passes should not exceed 100 °C (212oF). Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding with covered electrodes and gas-shielded arc welding, especially the TIG and MIG methods.

Since the material is intended for use under severe corrosion conditions, welding must be carried out with care and a thorough cleaning must be performed after welding to ensure that the weld metal and the heat-affected zone will have corrosion properties close to those of the parent metal.

Welding should be undertaken with low heat input, maximum 1.0 kJ/mm. Furthermore, the diameter of electrodes used in manual metal-arc welding should be max. 2.5 mm (3/32") for stock thicknesses up to 6 mm (1/4") and max. 3.25 mm (1/8") for heavier stock gauges. A stringer bead welding technique is recommended.

Like all austenitic stainless steels, UNS N08904 has low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion, so welding must be carefully planned in advance to ensure that distortion of the welded joint can be kept under control. If, despite such precautions, it is believed that residual stresses might impair the functioning of the structure, it is recommended that the entire structure will be solution annealed, see under Heat treatment.

Welding of fully austenitic steels often entails the risk of hot-cracking in the weld metal, particularly if the weldment is under constraint. UNS N08904, however, possesses very high purity, which reduces the risk of such cracking.



The good ductility of UNS N08904 permits bending in the cold state to the smallest bending radii attainable with modern methods and machines. Annealing is not necessary after cold bending. If, however, the tubes have been heavily cold-worked and are to be used under conditions where stress corrosion cracking is liable to occur, solution annealing is recommended (see under this heading).

For pressure vessel applications in Germany, heat treatment may be required after cold deformation in accordance with VdTÜV-Wb 421. Heat treatment should be carried out by solution annealing.



UNS N08904 is a multi-purpose material for use under severe corrosive conditions. This has been proven both by laboratory tests and by extensive operational experience with the steel.

Typical applications for UNS N08904 are found in oil refineries and within the chemical and petrochemical industry. UNS N08904 is also used within the pulp and paper industry, the mineral and metallurgical industry, the food industry, in seawater cooling and in many other fields.

The grade is an excellent alternative to standard austenitic stainless steels in heat exchangers using high temperature water with chloride contamination.


Production process

ASTM A240 N08904 904L Stainless Steel Flat Sheet High Alloy Austenitic ISO 4539-089-04-I 10

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